Django, расширение модели пользователя через настраиваемые поля


#1

Какой лучший способ расширить модель User через настраиваемыми полями? Я использую Django authentication.


#2

Один из лучших способов сделать это используя свойство OneToOneField(User)

Extending the existing User model

There are two ways to extend the default User model without substituting your own model. If the changes you need are purely behavioral, and don’t require any change to what is stored in the database, you can create a proxy model based on User. This allows for any of the features offered by proxy models including default ordering, custom managers, or custom model methods.

If you wish to store information related to User, you can use a OneToOneField to a model containing the fields for additional information. This one-to-one model is often called a profile model, as it might store non-auth related information about a site user. For example you might create an Employee model:

from django.contrib.auth.models import User

class Employee(models.Model):
user = models.OneToOneField(User, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
department = models.CharField(max_length=100)

Assuming an existing Employee Fred Smith who has both a User and Employee model, you can access the related information using Django’s standard related model conventions:

>>> u = User.objects.get(username='fsmith')
>>> freds_department = u.employee.department

To add a profile model’s fields to the user page in the admin, define an InlineModelAdmin (for this example, we’ll use a StackedInline) in your app’s admin.py and add it to a UserAdmin class which is registered with the User class:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin as BaseUserAdmin
from django.contrib.auth.models import User

from my_user_profile_app.models import Employee

 # Define an inline admin descriptor for Employee model
 # which acts a bit like a singleton
 class EmployeeInline(admin.StackedInline):
     model = Employee
     can_delete = False
     verbose_name_plural = 'employee'

 # Define a new User admin
 class UserAdmin(BaseUserAdmin):
     inlines = (EmployeeInline, )
 
 # Re-register UserAdmin
 admin.site.unregister(User)
 admin.site.register(User, UserAdmin)

These profile models are not special in any way - they are just Django models that happen to have a one-to-one link with a user model. As such, they aren’t auto created when a user is created, but a django.db.models.signals.post_save could be used to create or update related models as appropriate.

Using related models results in additional queries or joins to retrieve the related data. Depending on your needs, a custom user model that includes the related fields may be your better option, however, existing relations to the default user model within your project’s apps may justify the extra database load.

Но также есть вариант с расширением django.contrib.auth.models.User и вытеснением его:

Substituting a custom User model

Some kinds of projects may have authentication requirements for which Django’s built-in User model is not always appropriate. For instance, on some sites it makes more sense to use an email address as your identification token instead of a username.

Django allows you to override the default user model by providing a value for the AUTH_USER_MODEL setting that references a custom model:

AUTH_USER_MODEL = 'myapp.MyUser'

This dotted pair describes the name of the Django app (which must be in your INSTALLED_APPS), and the name of the Django model that you wish to use as your user model.

Лично я бы использовал первый способ.