Какой лучший способ расширить модель User через настраиваемыми полями? Я использую Django authentication.
Один из лучших способов сделать это используя свойство
There are two ways to extend the default User model without substituting your own model. If the changes you need are purely behavioral, and don’t require any change to what is stored in the database, you can create a proxy model based on User. This allows for any of the features offered by proxy models including default ordering, custom managers, or custom model methods.
If you wish to store information related to User, you can use a
OneToOneFieldto a model containing the fields for additional information. This one-to-one model is often called a profile model, as it might store non-auth related information about a site user. For example you might create an Employee model:
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
class Employee(models.Model): user = models.OneToOneField(User, on_delete=models.CASCADE) department = models.CharField(max_length=100)
Assuming an existing Employee Fred Smith who has both a User and Employee model, you can access the related information using Django’s standard related model conventions:
>>> u = User.objects.get(username='fsmith')
>>> freds_department = u.employee.department
To add a profile model’s fields to the user page in the admin, define an
InlineModelAdmin(for this example, we’ll use a
StackedInline) in your app’s
admin.pyand add it to a
UserAdminclass which is registered with the
from django.contrib import admin from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin as BaseUserAdmin from django.contrib.auth.models import User from my_user_profile_app.models import Employee # Define an inline admin descriptor for Employee model # which acts a bit like a singleton class EmployeeInline(admin.StackedInline): model = Employee can_delete = False verbose_name_plural = 'employee' # Define a new User admin class UserAdmin(BaseUserAdmin): inlines = (EmployeeInline, ) # Re-register UserAdmin admin.site.unregister(User) admin.site.register(User, UserAdmin)
These profile models are not special in any way - they are just Django models that happen to have a one-to-one link with a user model. As such, they aren’t auto created when a user is created, but a
django.db.models.signals.post_savecould be used to create or update related models as appropriate.
Using related models results in additional queries or joins to retrieve the related data. Depending on your needs, a custom user model that includes the related fields may be your better option, however, existing relations to the default user model within your project’s apps may justify the extra database load.
Но также есть вариант с расширением django.contrib.auth.models.User и вытеснением его:
Some kinds of projects may have authentication requirements for which Django’s built-in
Usermodel is not always appropriate. For instance, on some sites it makes more sense to use an email address as your identification token instead of a username.
Django allows you to override the default user model by providing a value for the
AUTH_USER_MODELsetting that references a custom model:
AUTH_USER_MODEL = 'myapp.MyUser'
This dotted pair describes the name of the Django app (which must be in your
INSTALLED_APPS), and the name of the Django model that you wish to use as your user model.
Лично я бы использовал первый способ.